Introduction to Embedded Systems

IntroductionLet’s be honest, for most, the phrase Embedded System does not elicit much excitement…which is unfortunate. This somewhat sterile term is used to describe a broad category of computer applications that are an integral part of our everyday lives. For me, embedded systems represent some of the most exciting computer engineering applications where the proverbial computing ‘rubber’ hits the real-world ‘road.’

There are many unofficial definitions of embedded systems but most boil down to some version of the following:

A computer system that is optimized to perform a finite set of specific tasks.

It is worth pointing out that this definition is focused on the functional purpose of a computer system. It does not include any reference to the system size, number of components, or end product. Also, this definition does not include small single-board computers like Raspberry Pi and PC104. Both are powerful general-purpose, stand-alone computers capable of performing many tasks but not optimized for a set of specific tasks.

So why are embedded systems so important? As I mentioned above, embedded systems are where the rubber hits the road. These are the computer systems that operate in the world beyond a personal workstation, laptop, or gaming console. Embedded Systems are also where the vast majority of the small CPUs and micro-controllers are used. According to this Wikipedia article, 98% of all micro-controllers are part of embedded systems.

Wikipedia contains an overview and history of embedded systems here. I always find formal definitions of limited value and prefer to teach using examples. Some examples of embedded systems we encounter every day are:

Digital Clocks
Digital Cameras
Computer Disk Drives

Computer Modems
Electronic Toys
Personal Music Players
DVD Players

The list is nearly endless.

Now that we’ve established what defines an embedded system lets dive into the components of an embedded system and some of the challenges faced when designing them.